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Congress. Senate Committee on the Judiciary. Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws. Extent of Subversion in Campus Disorders. Washington, D. C.: GPO, 1969.

Pt. 1: Testimony of Ernesto E. Blanco (June 19, 1969).



Granma, the Castro-blessed news media, proclaimed in an issue of Aug. 13, 1967, "That When We Can Reach Victory Depends, Essentially, on the Combatants of Each Country, on the Revolutionary Vanguards Formed in the Struggle and by the Struggle".

A more pertinent item in this Granma -- the "official organ of the central committee of the Communist Party of Cuba" (8-13-67) was one concerning Stokely Carmichael. The heading was: "When the United States has 50 Viet Nams Inside and 50 Outside, This will mean the Death of Imperialism."

The press conference Carmichael story, starting with a discussion of "Urban Guerrilla Warfare Within the United States," includes the following:

Press Conference with Stokely Carmichael



Negro leader Stokely Carmichael of the United States spoke over Radio Havana Cuba addressing words of greeting to the courageous veteran guerrilla leader, Ernesto Che Guevara, wherever he may be. He also sent a message of salutation to "our comrades in armed struggle against imperialism and racism." The two messages follow.


Havana, Cuba, August 1, 1967.

To my fellow comrade Che,

The African-Americans inside the United States have a great deal of admiration for you. We eagerly await your writings in order to read them and plan our tactics based on them.

We want you to know, wherever you are, that you are an inspiration not only to the Blacks inside the U.S. but to the Liberation Struggle around the world. Please keep on fighting because by your fighting you are inspiring us. Do not despair, my comrade.

We will win,

Stokely Carmichael


"We, of the Black Liberation Movement of the U.S., want all of you to know wherever you are, that we are your comrades. We are no longer going to allow our enemies to make us fight against you as they have done in the past. We will not fight in Viet Nam, Santo Domingo or anywhere else in the world. Our fight will be inside the U.S.

While we are fighting to destroy Imperialism from the inside, we know you will be fighting from the outside. We are dedicated with our very lives to destroy imperialism as you have proven time and time again that you have dedicated your lives. We look forward to the day, which will be very soon, when we will overthrow decadent governments and will start the real Revolution of building a society based on humanity rather than a society based on exploitation. Our struggle is the same. Our love for humanity will make us continue the fight."

Stokely Carmichael (S.N.C.C.)

"We are moving toward urban guerrilla warfare within the United States since there is no other way to obtain our homes, our lands, and our rights... For 400 years, the Negro population of the U.S. has tried to coexist, but to no avail. We have no other alternative but to take up arms in order to attain liberation."

The speaker was Stokely Carmichael, honorary delegate to the First Conference of OLAS, a man who at the moment personifies the best of the Negro people's struggle in the United States.

The U.S. Negro leader gave an interesting press conference in which he answered with extraordinary forthrightness, questions put by both local reporters and foreign correspondents.

Many of his answers, given with the simplicity, honesty and firmness of a genuine revolutionary leader, drew rounds of applause.

Accompanying Carmichael were his comrades of the SNCC (Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee) Julius Lester and George Ware.

Carmichael continued: "For 400 years, the Negro population in our country has lived under the most brutal Fascism ever known. What is now happening from New York to California and from Canada to Mexico is nothing but the response of rebellion to the constant aggressions we have been subjected to." He gave a brief explanation of what Black Power consists of:

"It is the union of the Negro population of the U.S. with the oppressed peoples of the rest of the world. It is the struggle against capitalism and imperialism that oppress us from within and oppress you from without."

Questioned as to the possible coordination of the Negro struggle with that of other peoples, he replied: "Our very presence here indicates that." Stokely once again picked up the Negro theme:

"When we created our organization, conditions were different in the struggle of the Negro people of the United States. That is why we called it "non-violent." It was the year 1960 and Dr. Martin Luther King was the leading figure of the movement. He was a pacifist and for that reason we had to adopt that name. But we did not believe in non-violence at the time, and we organized our people telling them that we would have to use our weapons.

"In 1965, following the Watts revolt, non-violence ceased to be a point worthy of discussion. It became necessary to adopt other means of struggle."

Some whites may take up arms. The case of Negro millionaires

A reporter asked if U.S. whites who call themselves liberals have joined the present Negro movement. Both Carmichael and Jules Lester answered the question: "Whites who call themselves liberals are enemies of the Negro struggle since, in general, they are rich people who derive benefits from the system. And we are fighting to destroy that system that oppresses us and brings about tragedy. It is impossible for us to come together. Theirs is an intellectual commitment, not a commitment of conscience, stemming from suffering.

Carmichael spoke rapidly, in sharp tones, "When they see a white policeman kill a Negro they talk to the policeman and ask him why he did it. When I see a policeman kill a Negro I want to kill the policeman."

He went on, barely waiting for the interpreter to translate his words: "The only whites who may join us are those who are ready to take up arms and fight the regime. Idle talk has been going on for 400 years."

A foreign correspondent asked: "What do the Negro millionaires think of all this?" Carmichael laughed and replied, "What could they think? After all, they are millionaires. There are 67 Negro millionaires who want to continue making profits. They, too, must be destroyed."

Lincoln, a white racist in the best sense of the word

Stokely and Ware had this to say about Abraham Lincoln: "He was a white racist in the best sense of the word. He had absolutely no idea of the true integration of the Negro. He made war solely for economic reasons. His story has been only a myth to tell young people."

Speaking of Negro leader Malcolm X, murdered in the U.S. in 1965, he said: "He is our spiritual leader. He was one of the most legitimate Negro leaders in the U.S. He spoke for the black masses, to the black masses, and he struggled for the black masses. He was assassinated by Cuban exiles. In an effort to confuse our people the CIA accused the Black Muslims of being behind the crime."

Viet Nam: our brother in struggle

The Negro leader spoke of the war being waged by the U.S. against the Vietnamese people: "We don't want to serve as cannon fodder for an imperialist cause. That is why we refuse to do compulsory military service. We will not take up arms against the Vietnamese people because they have not done anything against us and because they are not to blame for the exploitation that we have been subjected to. The people of Viet Nam are our brothers in struggle because we are both fighting against the structure oppressing us."

Explaining that 40% of the U.S. front-line troops are Negroes, he added: "The United States has taught us to kill. Upon their return, our brothers will put this teaching to good use in the cities."

This statement brought forth a murmur of excitement among national and foreign newspapermen attending the conference. A series of questions followed which Carmichael answered with great spirit: "In the U.S. the soldiers will have to fight a hand to hand combat with us and we'll wipe them out.

"The insurrection in Detroit is hurting the U.S. economically.

"Even if the authorities make it difficult for us to obtain arms for the struggle, we can always get them.

"The joint struggle of the peoples against the U.S. will destroy the monster.

"Only recently, Martin Luther King supported the sending of troops to Detroit. This shows that in fact he is against Negroes.

"The only condition under which we would accept having a separate territory in the U.S. would be the existence of nuclear bombs and rockets in both territories.

"Present Negro rebellions are the result of an awareness we have built up in the population.

"We are not afraid because we know we will win."

Fidel: source of inspiration

Carmichael said that for a long time our Prime Minister, Major Fidel Castro, has been a source of inspiration for him and for other Negroes because of his constant struggle for the liberation of all oppressed peoples.

Speaking of his visit to Cuba he said that he had been greatly impressed by the country and its people. "This is the first time I have seen an army" he said "and was not afraid of it."

Julius Lester and George Ware gave their opinions on our country and the Cuban Revolution, saying that they understood why the U.S. Government will not let U.S. citizens visit Cuba, explaining that the U.S. Government is afraid U.S. citizens will learn the truth about the Revolution and its leaders.

Lester said: "I have been a free man twice. On my visit to Viet Nam and now."

Ware said that U.S. NEgroes know instinctively that the Cuban Revolution is good. He added that he and his comrades had come here to learn.

Cuba: the nearest system

Asked if he was a sympathizer of communism, Carmichael replied that there were several forms of communism, although the Cuban system was the nearest one.

Speaking of Robert McCloskey's threat with regards to his trip to Cuba. Carmichael said emphatically, "He is neither my mother nor my father. We'll go wherever we want to go and we'll see whoever we want to see. To hell with McCloskey!"

Che: a man of word and deed

In answer to a question about Major Che Guevara, Carmichael answered quickly, "Che is important to us because he is a man of word and deed. He is militant. He is the opposite of what we call armchair revolutionaries. We never heard a man speak so clearly."

On Che's call to create two, three, many Viet Nams: "When the U.S. have 50 Viet Nams inside and 50 outside this will mean the death of imperialism."

Black revenge if we are murdered

With regard to retaliatory measures that might be taken against him for his brave and determined position of struggle, the Honorary Delegate to OLAS replied that the CIA is an international-organization nd has a "license" to kill. "We'll pay them back in kind," he added.

The three men stressed the fact that Israel is a U.S. stronghold in the Middle East and that the Arabs have the right to recover the lands that belong to them. This was the most extensive press conference ever given by Stokely Carmichael.

Pedro Meluza

The article above, taken from the August 13, 1967, issue of Granma, was addressed as follows:

R. Blanco
Apartado No. 6260

President of Student Government
Alfred University
Alfred, N.Y. 14802

(Ed. Note: Circles were drawn about remite and customs stamp, by Professor Blanco; to emphasize origin and receipt.)

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